Seed production and patterns of sex allocation were studied in female and hermaphroditic plants in two gynodioecious populations of Geranium sylvaticum Geraniaceae. Females produced more flower buds and seeds than hermaphrodites in one of the two study populations. The other female traits measured pistil biomass, seed number per fruit, individual seed mass did not differ between the gender morphs. The relative seed fitness of hermaphrodites differed between the study populations, with hermaphrodites gaining less of their fitness through female function in the population with a high frequency of females. However, the amount and size of pollen produced by hermaphrodites did not differ between populations. The number of flower buds was positively correlated with seed production in females, whereas in hermaphrodites a positive correlation between number of buds and seed production was found in only one of the two study populations.
A conflict between two sexes, females and hermaphrodites
Intersex - Wikipedia
Hermaphroditism , the condition of having both male and female reproductive organs. Hermaphroditic plants —most flowering plants, or angiosperms —are called monoecious, or bisexual. Hermaphroditic animals—mostly invertebrates such as worms , bryozoans moss animals , trematodes flukes , snails , slugs , and barnacles —are usually parasitic, slow-moving, or permanently attached to another animal or plant. In humans, conditions that involve discrepancies between external genitalia and internal reproductive organs are described by the term intersex.
Janet L. Over the last years, research has established that a sexual selection exists and is widespread in the plant and animal kingdoms; b it does not necessarily entail sexual dimorphism; even hermaphrodites have it; c it does not require intelligence or a sophisticated sense of esthetics; even tapeworms and plants choose mates; and d it does not require brawn or even mobility for competition; plants may compete for pollinators, and broadcast spawning invertebrates may also compete for matings. Although discussions of sexual selection often focus on sexual dimorphism, several phenomena that are commonly associated with sexual selection are widespread and highly developed in hermaphrodites. These phenomena include a bizarre and expensive courtship and copulatory behavior, b multiple mating and sperm competition, c rapid evolution of genitalia, d special structures associated with courtship, and e sexual polymorphism.
For example, the great majority of tunicates , pulmonate snails, opisthobranch snails , earthworms , and slugs are hermaphrodites. Hermaphroditism is also found in some fish species and to a lesser degree in other vertebrates. Most plants are also hermaphrodites. Historically, the term hermaphrodite has also been used to describe ambiguous genitalia and gonadal mosaicism in individuals of gonochoristic species, especially human beings. The word intersex has come into usage for humans, since the word hermaphrodite is considered to be misleading and stigmatizing,   as well as "scientifically specious and clinically problematic.